Congenital Heart Disease

Welcome to the Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) page. Mayo Clinic has cared for child and adult patients living with CHD for more than 60 years. With extensive expertise in treating people with rare and common congenital heart defects, our medical specialists provide exactly the care you need.

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There are multiple congenital heart diseases. Learn about various conditions and care at Mayo Clinic.

Atrial Septal Defect

An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of your heart (atria). The condition is present at birth (congenital). Learn more about the symptoms and treatments of this congenital disease.

Atrial Septal Defect Cap

Ventricular Septal Defect

A ventricular septal defect (VSD), a hole in the heart, is a common heart defect that's present at birth (congenital). Learn more about symptoms and treatments of this congenital disease.

Ventricular Septal Defect Cap

Ebstein Anomaly

Ebstein's anomaly is a rare heart defect that's present at birth (congenital). In Ebstein's anomaly, your tricuspid valve — the valve between the two right heart chambers (right atrium and right ventricle) — doesn't work properly. The tricuspid valve sits lower than normal in the right ventricle, and the tricuspid valve's leaflets are abnormally formed. Learn more about the symptoms and treatments of this congenital disease.

Ebstein Anomaly

Coarctation of Aorta

Coarctation of the aorta — or aortic coarctation — is a narrowing of the aorta, the large blood vessel that branches off your heart and delivers oxygen-rich blood to your body. When this occurs, your heart must pump harder to force blood through the narrowed part of your aorta. Coarctation of the aorta is generally present at birth (congenital). Learn more about this congenital disease.

Coarctation of Aorta

Eisenmenger Syndrome

Eisenmenger syndrome is a complication of a heart defect that you're born with (congenital). Learn more about this congenital disease.

Eisenmenger Syndrome

Pulmonary Atresia

Pulmonary atresia is a heart defect present at birth (congenital) that's normally diagnosed within the first few hours or days of life. Learn more about this congenital disease.

pulmonary atresia

Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot is a rare condition caused by a combination of four heart defects that are present at birth (congenital). Learn more about this congenital disease.

Tetralogy of Fallot

Complete Transposition of the Great Arteries

Transposition of the great arteries is a serious but rare heart defect present at birth (congenital), in which the two main arteries leaving the heart are reversed (transposed). Learn more about this congenital disease.

Complete Transposition of the Great Arteries

Truncus Arteriosus

Truncus arteriosus is a rare heart defect that's present at birth (congenital). This condition means that one large blood vessel leads out of the heart. Learn more about this congenital disease. Fontan Palliation Fontan operation (palliation) is a complex open heart surgery that is often performed in multiple stages. It is designed to treat patients with complex congenital heart disease known as a single ventricle. In patients with single ventricle, oxygen-poor blood that should go to the lungs and oxygen-rich blood that should go to the rest of the body are mixed together and this creates severe circulatory problems. The Fontan operation is designed to direct oxygen-poor blood to the lungs, and oxygen-rich blood to the body. Adults who have undergone prior Fontan operation have reduced survival compared to people without heart disease. This is because these patients are prone to several complications such as heart failure, abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia), liver disease, kidney disease, high risk of blood clot, protein-losing enteropathy (disease of the gut) and several other problems. The Mayo Clinic was one of the first hospitals to perform the Fontan operation in North America, and as a result the doctors at Mayo Clinic have a lot of experience caring for these patients. All adults who have a Fontan operation require lifelong follow-up at a specialized center such as the Mayo Clinic because of the multiple complications to which these patients are prone.

Truncus Arteriosus

Congenitally Corrected Transposition of Great Arteries

Congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries is a rare, complex congenital heart defect in which the right ventricle (the pump that is designed to send blood to the lungs) is connected to the artery (aorta)that sends blood to the body while the left ventricle (the pump that is designed to send blood to the body) is connected to the artery (pulmonary artery) that sends blood to the lungs. The right ventricle is a weaker pump compared to the left ventricle. Patients with congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries have the right ventricle (a weaker pump) serving as the main pump to the body. Over time, the right ventricle tends to fail, and the valve of the right ventricle (tricuspid valve) tends to leak. Additionally, the patients are at risk for abnormal heart rhythm known as "heart block." Most patients with this condition survive to adulthood without prior heart surgery. During adulthood, most patients will require heart surgery to address the leakage of the tricuspid valve or require pacemaker because of heart block. All adults with congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries will require lifelong follow-up at a specialized center such as Mayo Clinic because of the multiple complications to which these patients are prone. 

Congenitally Corrected Transposition of Great Arteries

Atrioventricular Canal Defect (Endocardial Cushion Defect)

Atrioventricular canal defect is rare, complex congenital heart defect that consists of a hole in the wall separating the upper chambers of the heart (atrial septal defect), abnormality of the valve that separates the left-sided chambers (mitral valve), and sometimes a hole in the wall separating the lower pumping chambers of the heart (ventricular septal defect). Atrioventricular canal defect is more common in people with Down syndrome and results in increased blood flow to the lungs. Over time, patients will develop heart failure, abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) and high pressure in the arteries in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension). Most adults with atrioventricular canal defect have had heart surgeries in childhood, while a few patients survive into adulthood without prior heart surgeries. Regardless of whether previous heart surgery was performed, all patients with atrioventricular canal defect require lifelong follow-up at a specialized center such as the Mayo Clinic because of the multiple complications to which these patients are prone.

 

Atrioventricular Canal Defect

 

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