Tetralogy of Fallot is the combination of four congenital heart abnormalities. Presenting at birth, the four defects affect the structure of the heart. The defects include the narrowing of the pulmonary valve (which separates the lower right chamber of the heart from the pulmonary artery), a hole in the ventricular septal wall (the wall that separates the two lower chambers of the heart), an overriding aorta, and the thickening of the muscular wall of the right ventricle (the lower right chamber of the heart).
In this video from Dr. Joseph Dearani, details when the surgery will occur and what it contains, including the different surgical repair for an infant as well as for adults. Dr. Dearani details the difference between a transatrial or transpulmonary surgical approach and a transventricular approach. In addition, he explains why a pulmonary valve replacement is necessary later in life after a complete repair as an infant and details the success of these surgical approaches in the short and long term.