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Dec 19, 2019 · Echo Tutorial: Echo Assessment of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease - Mayo Clinic in Congenital Heart Disease

2019-11-19 Echo Tutorial

Heidi M. Connolly, MD. gives an overview of assessing an echocardiogram for a patient with congenital heart disease. In this tutorial, Dr. Connolly focuses on primum atrial septal defect or partial atrialventricular septal defect and a cleft mitral valve.

She explains how one needs to look for abnormalities in the tricuspid valve while also noting how an ECG can notice left-axis deviation and first degree AV blocks.

While presenting an example echo, Dr Connolly notes the defects present in a particular heart through the basic echo as well as one that demonstrates bloodflow. She follows this by show two additional angles, explaining what can be seen in the images.


Aug 12, 2019 · Adult Congenital Heart Disease: Bicuspid Aortic Valve in Congenital Heart Disease

2019-10-30 Bicuspid Valve

The aortic valve separates the aorta and the left ventricle. A normal valve has three cusps while bicuspid valve has two. Heidi M. Connolly, MD., explains this common heart defect that affects more males than females and details how this defect is diagnosed. Associated disorders of a bicuspid valve includes, abnormal valve function, abnormal aorta, infections, genetics and family history with many having Turner syndrome, as well as other congenital heart defects. Lastly, Dr. Connolly explains how these patients should be cared for and treated.




Jun 18, 2019 · Carcinoid Heart Disease in Congenital Heart Disease

2019-10-30 Cacinoid Heart Disease

Mayo Clinic states Carcinoid syndrome occurs when a rare cancerous tumor called a carcinoid tumor secretes certain chemicals into your bloodstream, causing a variety of signs and symptoms. In the following video from Heidi M. Connolly, MD., carcinoid heart disease is explored. Dr. Connolly details how it largely effects the right side of the heart, to how the rare tumor will effect the heart over time leading to leaking and enlargement of the right chambers of the heart.

Dr. Connolly also lists the symptoms of Carcinoid heart disease and describes the challenges of managing carcinoid heart disease.





Oct 10, 2018 · Repaired tetralogy of fallot, years later: A study by Heidi M. Connolly, MD in Congenital Heart Disease

tetralogy of fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot is the combination of four congenital heart abnormalities. Presenting at birth, the four defects affect the structure of the heart. The defects include the narrowing of the pulmonary valve (which separates the lower right chamber of the heart from the pulmonary artery), a hole in the ventricular septal wall (the wall that separates the two lower chambers of the heart), an overriding aorta, and the thickening of the muscular wall of the right ventricle (the lower right chamber of the heart).

Often diagnosed in infancy, the condition presents itself through symptoms such as bluish skin due to lack of oxygen, shortness of breath and rapid breathing, loss of conciousness, or a heart murmur.

TOF is most often corrected by surgery. When diagnosed early enough, and corrected by appropriate surgical treatment, most children and adults who have the defect, are able to live relatively normal lives, but will need medical care throughout life.

A recent study chronicles how a 32-year old women, years after having surgery to correct tetralogy of Fallot, presented for evaluation of her congenital heart disease.  The woman last had surgery when she was three, for a TOF repair after receiving a Blalock-Taussig shunt in early childhood. Upon examination, certain irregularities were discovered.

Read the rest of the study to find out what her doctors, including Heidi M. Connolly, MD., decided to do.


Jun 6, 2018 · Atrial Septal Defects in Congenital Heart Disease

Screen Shot 2018-06-14 at 2Patients with an atrial septal defect (ASD) have a hole in the wall of the heart that separates the top two chambers. This hole allows blood to transition from the left atrium to the right atrium, ultimately causing enlargement of the right heart chambers. This can cause a decrease in heart function.

Atrial septal defects can be detected during physical examinations or, for those experiencing symptoms such as breathlessness, fatigue, or abnormal rhythms, through cardiac testing such as electrocardiograms or chest x-rays.

Management and treatment of atrial septal defects are determined based on the size and location of the hole. If the hole is small, typically observation is recommended. For medium or large holes, closure by means of a catheter or surgical intervention is recommended. Following treatment, patients most often see improvements in their overall symptoms.

May 10, 2018 · Pregnancy and Congenital Heart Disease in Congenital Heart Disease

Screen Shot 2018-06-14 at 1

Mayo Clinic cardiologist Heidi Connolly, M.D., discusses pregnancy in patients with congenital heart disease.

Congenital heart disease is the most common form of structural heart disease affecting women of childbearing age in the United States. Congenital heart disease does increase the risk to the mother and baby, so having a comprehensive care team is important. Prior to pregnancy, a full evaluation by an adult congenital heart disease specialist is essential. This will include reviewing medications, assessing risk, and determine a management plan for before and after delivery.

Pregnancy should be avoided in women with severe pulmonary hypertension, reduced heart function, severe “obstructive” lesions, severely dilated aorta, and those with cyanosis.

Apr 10, 2018 · Pulmonary Valve Regurgitation in Congenital Heart Disease

Pulmonary Valve Regurgitation

Mayo Clinic cardiologist Heidi Connolly, M.D., discusses pulmonary valve regurgitation in adult congenital heart disease.

Pulmonary valve regurgitation is a fairly common congenital heart problem and can be caused from surgical treatment of primary congenital pulmonary valve disease or Tetralogy of Fallot. Pulmonary valve regurgitation is a condition where the pulmonary valve does not work properly allowing blood to flow back into the right ventricle. This can cause enlargement of the right side of the heart.

Symptoms of pulmonary valve regurgitation include breathlessness, fatigue, heart rhythm problems, and right heart failure. Observation to identify the best time for valve replacement is important as there is currently no medical management for pulmonary valve regurgitation.